Use and Relationships Among Effective Practices in Co-Taught Inclusive High School Classrooms


Opportunities to respond (OTR) and specific praise are two practices that may be particularly beneficial to students learning in secondary inclusive classrooms. Yet, there is relatively little research on effective inclusion practices involving secondary students with learning disabilities or studies at the secondary level. This study sought to extend the existing research by evaluating the relationship between rates of OTR and specific praise in co-taught high school core classrooms on student on-task behavior and class engagement. This study was part of a larger study conducted during the 2010–2011 school year. First, core academic classrooms were observed and data were collected on OTR, praise, and student behavior. OTR information was collected using an audio recording device. Class audio recordings were divided into 15-minute intervals of whole group instruction and coded for OTR, specific praise, and nonspecific praise. Observation data on student behavior and class engagement that corresponded with each 15-minute interval were identified. Results indicate low levels of teacher use of OTR and praise statements and few significant relationships found between the variables of interest. Implications for practice and future research directions are also presented.


McKenna, J. W., Muething, C., Flower, A., Bryant, D. P., & Bryant, B. R. (2015). Use and relationships among effective practices in co-taught inclusive high school classrooms. International Journal of Inclusive Education19(1), 53–70.