Preventing Mathematics Difficulties in the Primary Grades: The Critical Features of Instruction in Textbooks as Part of the Equation


This study examined lessons from kindergarten, first-grade, and second-grade basal mathematics textbooks to determine the extent to which 11 evidence-based critical features of instruction were present. High-quality core instruction in these grades is critical to prevent mathematics difficulties. Overall, results showed an “Approaching Acceptable” rating, meaning that the features were not fully incorporated. Implications include the need for textbook adoption committees to be mindful of the importance of effective instructional practices and for teachers to scrutinize lessons to determine whether they include the features of effective instruction.


Bryant, B. R., Bryant, D. P., Kethley, C., Kim, S. A., Pool, C., & You-Jin, S. (2008). Preventing mathematics difficulties in the primary grades: The critical features of instruction in textbooks as part of the equation. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(1), 21–35.