Reading Instruction for Fourth-Grade Struggling Readers and the Relation to Student Outcomes


This study examined the amount, type, and quality of Tier 1 and supplemental reading instruction provided to fourth-grade struggling readers and whether specific elements of instruction predicted growth in reading skills. In all, 110 students identified as having reading difficulty who were receiving school-based reading instruction in 22 classrooms in two states participated. The authors observed and coded reading instruction for instructional dimensions, including reading components, grouping, and quality. Reading comprehension and vocabulary were the most prevalent components of instruction, whereas limited time was allocated to word-level reading skills. The authors noted several significant differences in time allocated to overall instruction and components of instruction during Tier 1 between sites. Overall, there were few unique Tier 1 instructional predictors of student achievement at the end of the year. Students receiving supplemental reading instruction outperformed students receiving only Tier 1 on measures of oral reading fluency. The authors discuss implications for instruction and future research.


Kent, S. C., Wanzek, J., & Al Otaiba, S. (2016). Reading instruction for fourth-grade struggling readers and the relation to student outcomes. Reading & Writing Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/10573569.2016.1216342