Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children With Emotional Disturbances or Learning Disabilities


This study used a large statewide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second- and third-grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified with an emotional disturbance, and 10,339 students with a learning disability. Student status and growth trends were examined in a piecewise model at each grade level for the full sample as well as for a subsample with reading difficulties. Data suggested students with disabilities performed significantly below students without disabilities in initial status and growth. The authors also examined gender as a moderator of outcomes for each of the study groups.


Wanzek, J., Al Otaiba, S., & Petscher, Y. (2014). Oral reading fluency development for children with emotional disturbances or learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 80(2), 187–204.