This article reports patterns of identification for special education services across three cohorts of students in kindergarten through third grade before and after implementation of a schoolwide, three-tier reading prevention model in one large school district. The first cohort of students represents a historical control group that did not participate in the three-tier prevention model. The second and third cohorts represent successive cohorts of students who participated in the three-tier model from kindergarten to third grade. The data indicate a trend in the direction of a decreased percentage of students identified for special education through each cohort of students; however, there were no statistically significant differences in the overall percentages of students identified for special education across cohorts. The article discusses practical implications and further research.
Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2011). Is a three-tier reading intervention model associated with reduced placement in special education? Remedial and Special Education, 32(2), 167–175.