Is a Three-Tier Reading Intervention Model Associated With Reduced Placement in Special Education?


This article reports patterns of identification for special education services across three cohorts of students in kindergarten through third grade before and after implementation of a schoolwide, three-tier reading prevention model in one large school district. The first cohort of students represents a historical control group that did not participate in the three-tier prevention model. The second and third cohorts represent successive cohorts of students who participated in the three-tier model from kindergarten to third grade. The data indicate a trend in the direction of a decreased percentage of students identified for special education through each cohort of students; however, there were no statistically significant differences in the overall percentages of students identified for special education across cohorts. The article discusses practical implications and further research.


Wanzek, J., & Vaughn, S. (2011). Is a three-tier reading intervention model associated with reduced placement in special education? Remedial and Special Education, 32(2), 167–175.