Computer-Based Graphic Organizers for Students With LD: A Systematic Review of Literature


The authors systematically review studies that used computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies, which were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes and selected instructional and methodological features for evaluation to delineate practical implications and prioritize future research. Findings revealed high effect sizes on social studies measures and encouraging results for written expression; comprehension results were less promising. This review found no evidence suggesting that these treatments were efficacious without the use of explicit instruction and guided practice.


Ciullo, S., & Reutebuch, C. (2013). Computer-based graphic organizers for students with LD: A systematic review of literature. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 38(4), 196–210. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12017