The authors conducted a qualitative meta-analysis of the research on assessment accommodations for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. There were 16 identified studies that analyzed the impact of factors related to student performance on academic assessments across different educational settings, content areas, and types of assessment accommodations. The meta-analysis found that the results of analyses of group effects of accommodated versus unaccommodated test formats are often not significant, test-level factors exist that can affect how students perceive the assessments, and differences exist in how test items function across different conditions. Student-level factors, including educational context and academic proficiency, influence accommodations’ role in assessment processes. The results of this analysis highlight the complexity of and intersections between student-level factors, test-level factors, and larger policy contexts. Findings are discussed within the context of larger changes in academic assessment, including computer-based administration and high-stakes testing.
Cawthon, S. & Leppo, R. (2013). Assessment accommodations on tests of academic achievement for students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing: A qualitative meta-analysis of the research literature. American Annals of the Deaf, 158(3), 363–376.