Using a Video Modeling-Based Intervention Package to Toilet Train Two Children With Autism


This study evaluated the effects of an intervention package designed to teach independent toileting skills to two boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design was employed to investigate the effects of video modeling that used animation to depict in-toilet voiding combined with prompting and reinforcement procedures. Results indicated that the intervention package was effective in teaching a sequence of behaviors necessary for successful and independent toileting (e.g., walking to the toilet, undressing, sitting on the toilet, dressing, and flushing) as well as in-toilet urination for both boys. Skills generalized to the school and were maintained over 3 to 4 months. The intervention may have also been responsible for teaching in-toilet defecation for one participant. Results are interpreted in relation to the differential contributions of video modeling and behavioral instructional strategies.


McLay, L., Carnett, A., van der Meer, L., & Lang, R. (2015). Using a video modeling-based intervention package to toilet train two children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27, 431–451.