The Differential Efficacy of a Professional Development Model on Reading Outcomes for Students With and Without Disabilities


This study tested the effects of Check & Connect, an intervention designed to improve students’ engagement with school, with 358 high school English learners with reading comprehension difficulties. The intervention did not have a significant impact on participants’ self-reported engagement, attendance, behavior referrals, or course grades. Schools that implement Check & Connect with high school English learners with reading comprehension difficulties should consider reducing mentors’ caseloads to better support students’ engagement.


Swanson, E., Vaughn, S., Fall, A.-M., Stevens, E. A., Stewart, A. A., Capin, P., & Roberts, G. (2021). The differential efficacy of a professional development model on reading outcomes for students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advance online publication.