Engaging Students With Disabilities in Text-Based Discussions: Guidance for General Education Social Studies Classrooms


Students in middle school classes are increasingly expected to learn social studies content using text sources (Toste, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2013). To keep up with today’s literacy demands and be adequately prepared for postsecondary success, students need to be able to engage with text in a way that expands their knowledge and understanding of key information (Biancarosa & Snow, 2006).


Swanson, E., Stevens, E. A., & Wexler, J. (2019). Engaging students with disabilities in text-based discussions: Guidance for general education social studies classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 51(4), 305–312.