Effect of Parent Involvement and Parent Expectations on Postsecondary Outcomes for Individuals Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing


How parents communicate their expectations to their children plays a critical role in long-tem outcomes for students. This study explored how parental involvement and expectations affect transition outcomes for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), the authors assessed whether parent involvement in school and parent expectations about their child’s future predicted outcomes in life, employment, and education. Results of the analysis showed that parental expectations were an important contributor to long-term outcomes but that parental involvement was not. More specifically, the parent expectation that their child would live independently resulted in a greater likelihood that the child would both get a job and live independently. DHH children whose parents held the expectation that they would be employed after high school were more likely to enroll in college, and children whose parents expected them to attend college were more likely to complete college. In each case, young adults who are DHH exceeded their parents’ expectations. This article has implications for parents of students who are DHH and professionals involved in the transition planning process, specifically regarding the importance of parent expectations for positive postsecondary outcomes.


Cawthon, S., Garberoglio, C. L., Caemmerer, J., Bond, M., & Wendel, E. (2015). Effect of parent involvement and parent expectations on postsecondary outcomes for individuals who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. Exceptionality, 23(2), 73–99.