This study determined the effects of an early numeracy, preventative, Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students expressing mathematics difficulties. The study used a pretest-postest design with random assignment of 139 subjects to the Tier 2 treatment and 65 students to the control group. Study instruments were progress-monitoring measures and a standardized assessment. Students in the treatment group outperformed students in the comparison group on whole-number computation and progress monitoring of mathematics performance. The study showed no group differences on problem-solving measures.
Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23.