This chapter considers the nature of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and reviews evidence for treatments to reduce SIB among people with intellectual disabilities (ID). First, the chapter provides an overview of the definition of SIB and lists the most common forms of SIB among individuals with ID. It summarizes the prevalence rates and risk factors for SIB among people with ID. Next, the chapter describes procedures that were followed to identify and appraise the evidence base related to SIB treatments for individuals with ID. These procedures include search strategies, inclusion criteria, treatment classification, and evidence appraisal. The chapter reviews the evidence base supporting identified treatments. Cognitive behavior therapy has been used with some success in the treatment of various types of behavioral problems in individuals with ID. Other treatments include auditory integration training, sensory integrative therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy.
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