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This study evaluated the effects of an intervention package designed to teach independent toileting skills to two boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline-across-participants design was employed to investigate the effects of video modeling that used animation to depict in-toilet voiding combined with prompting and reinforcement procedures. Results indicated that the intervention package was effective in teaching a sequence of behaviors necessary for successful and independent toileting (e.g., walking to the toilet, undressing, sitting on the toilet, dressing, and flushing) as well as in-toilet urination for both boys. Skills generalized to the school and were maintained over 3 to 4 months. The intervention may have also been responsible for teaching in-toilet defecation for one participant. Results are interpreted in relation to the differential contributions of video modeling and behavioral instructional strategies.


McLay, L., Carnett, A., van der Meer, L., & Lang, R. (2015). Using a video modeling-based intervention package to toilet train two children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27, 431–451.

Related Institute

Published Date



Autism Spectrum Disorders

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter



Grade Level