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In the upper-elementary grades, content area text increases in importance as a primary source of reading and information. This article focuses on the specialized vocabulary demands of social studies texts and presents a framework of teaching and learning strategies based on vocabulary research. The strategies are intended for use before, during, and after social studies text reading, illustrating how to develop and relate vocabulary knowledge to social studies concepts and content.


Hairrell, A., Simmons, D., Swanson, E. A., Edmonds, M. S., Vaughn, S., & Rupley, W. H. (2010). Translating vocabulary research to social studies instruction: Before, during, and after text-reading strategies. Intervention in School and Clinic, 46(4), 1–7.

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Features of Effective Instruction
Reading Instruction

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Journal Article/Book Chapter


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