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This study reports vocabulary and reading comprehension instructional practices implemented in middle and high school social studies and language arts classrooms. The proportion of time spent reading text was roughly the same across the two subjects, with differences by text type, reading mode, and grade level within both subject areas and reading practices.


Swanson, E., Wanzek, J., McCulley, L., Stillman-Spisak, S., Vaughn, S., Simmons, D., . . . Harrell, A. (2015). Literacy and text reading in middle and high school social studies and English language arts classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/10573569.2014.910718

Related Institute

Related Project

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences


Reading Instruction

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter



Grade Level

Middle School
High School