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This study aimed to determine the efficacy of a content knowledge and reading comprehension treatment implemented by eighth-grade general education social studies teachers among students with disabilities included in the classes. Data on students with disabilities across 2 years of study were combined for the analysis presented here. Students in the treatment conditions (n = 72) scored statistically higher than students in the comparison conditions (n = 58) on knowledge acquisition (effect size = .26) and content reading comprehension (effect size = .34) but not on standardized reading comprehension. Findings are interpreted as demonstrating support for the treatment in improving both knowledge acquisition and reading comprehension within content area instruction among students with disabilities served in the general education social studies classroom.


Swanson, E., Wanzek, J., Vaughn, S., Roberts, G., & Fall, A. (2015). Improving reading comprehension and social studies knowledge among middle school students with disabilities. Exceptional Children. Advance online publication. doi:10.1177/0014402914563704

Related Institute

Related Project

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences


Content Area Instruction
Reading Instruction
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


General Education Classroom Teacher
School Administrator
Special Education Teacher

Grade Level

Middle School