Browse the Complete MCPER Library


Understanding the efficacy of evidence-based reading practices delivered in the Tier 1 (i.e., general classroom) setting is critical to successful implementation of multitiered systems, meeting a diverse range of student learning needs, and providing high-quality reading instruction across content areas. This meta-analysis presents evidence on the effects of Tier 1 reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students in grades 4–12 and a synthesis of effects for students identified as struggling readers. Results from this meta-analysis of 37 publications conducted between 2000 and 2015 reveal significant, positive effects for Tier 1 reading instruction on comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. A synthesis of the results for struggling readers indicates that they maintained or improved reading comprehension over struggling readers receiving typical instruction.


Swanson, E., Stevens, E. A., Scammacca, N. K., Capin, P., Stewart, A. A., & Austin, C. R. (2017). The impact of Tier 1 reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in grades 4–12: A meta-analysis. Reading and Writing, 30(8), 1639–1665.

Related Institute

Related Project

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences


3-Tier Model
Reading Instruction
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


School Administrator
Special Education Teacher

Grade Level

Middle School
High School