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This study investigated the effects of an early numeracy intervention delivered by kindergarten teachers to students identified as having mathematics difficulties. A design of multigroup growth modeling with random assignment to intervention condition was employed. Thirty-two teachers were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. A total of 71 students participated in the study, 47 in the treatment group and 24 in the comparison group. Results indicated that the treatment condition students outperformed comparison students (g* = .99) and demonstrated statistically significantly higher scores on all proximal measures of early numeracy. Also, about 80% to 100% of the variance was accounted for at the student level. Performance on distal measures was less impressive, with no significant differences between groups; the effect size was .44. Teachers rated components of the intervention highly, reflecting strong teacher satisfaction.


Bryant, B. R., Bryant, D. P., Roberts, G., & Fall, A.-M. (2016). Effects of an early numeracy intervention on struggling kindergarteners’ mathematics performance. International Journal for Research in Learning Disabilities, 3(1), 29–45. 

Related Institute

Published Date



Mathematics Instruction
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


Special Education Teacher

Grade Level