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The authors examined the effectiveness of a researcher‐provided reading intervention with 484 fourth-graders with significant reading difficulties. Students were randomly assigned to 1 year of intervention, 2 years of intervention, or a business‐as‐usual comparison condition (BAU). Students assigned to 2 years of intervention demonstrated significantly greater gains in reading fluency than students who received 1 year of intervention and the BAU group. Students in both the 1‐ and 2‐year groups demonstrated similar and significantly larger gains in word reading in comparison to the BAU group. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups on standardized measures of reading comprehension. The authors discuss these results in the context of research with late-elementary and secondary students targeting reading comprehension.


Miciak, J., Roberts, G., Taylor, W. P., Solis, M., Ahmed, Y., Vaughn, S., & Fletcher, J. M. (2018). The effects of one versus two years of intensive reading intervention implemented with late elementary struggling readers. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 33(1), 24–36. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12159

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Published Date


Funding Source

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


Reading Instruction
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


School Administrator

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