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This study determined the effects of an early numeracy, preventative, Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students expressing mathematics difficulties. The study used a pretest-postest design with random assignment of 139 subjects to the Tier 2 treatment and 65 students to the control group. Study instruments were progress-monitoring measures and a standardized assessment. Students in the treatment group outperformed students in the comparison group on whole-number computation and progress monitoring of mathematics performance. The study showed no group differences on problem-solving measures.


Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R., Roberts, G., Vaughn, S., Pfannenstiel, K. H., Porterfield, J., & Gersten, R. (2011). Early numeracy intervention program for first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Exceptional Children, 78(1), 7–23.

Related Institute

Published Date


Funding Source

U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences


Mathematics Instruction
Response to Intervention (RTI)

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


Higher Education Instructor
Special Education Teacher

Grade Level