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The authors systematically review studies that used computer-based graphic organizers for students with learning disabilities. A comprehensive search yielded 12 studies, which were coded and analyzed. The authors investigated the effectiveness of the treatments on academic outcomes and selected instructional and methodological features for evaluation to delineate practical implications and prioritize future research. Findings revealed high effect sizes on social studies measures and encouraging results for written expression; comprehension results were less promising. This review found no evidence suggesting that these treatments were efficacious without the use of explicit instruction and guided practice.


Ciullo, S., & Reutebuch, C. (2013). Computer-based graphic organizers for students with LD: A systematic review of literature. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 38(4), 196–210. doi:10.1111/ldrp.12017

Related Institute

Published Date



Reading Instruction
Special Education/Learning Disabilities
Writing Instruction

Type of Resource

Journal Article/Book Chapter


School Administrator
Special Education Teacher

Grade Level

Middle School
High School