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A summary of inclusion and co-teaching syntheses was conducted to better understand the evidence base associated with collaborative models of instruction. Six syntheses were identified: four investigated inclusion and two investigated co-teaching. The syntheses investigated research on collaborative models; student outcomes; teachers’ attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions; and students’ perceptions. Common themes of collaborative models were identified across the six syntheses, which included collaborative models; student outcomes; teacher support issues; and attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of collaborative models. Findings provide an empirical foundation to assist school psychologists in evidence-based decision making.


Solis, M., Vaughn, S., Swanson, E. A., & McCulley, E. V. (2012). Collaborative models of instruction: The empirical foundations of inclusion and co-teaching. Psychology in the Schools, 49(5), 498–510. doi:10.1002/pits.21606

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Features of Effective Instruction
Special Education/Learning Disabilities

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Journal Article/Book Chapter